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deodorized strong alcohol, and the juice of half a lemon, in a bottle of
sufficient size to hold all; then strain in the tincture of lemon peel.
To make orange extract, use the rind and oil of orange, as directed forlemon.
To make rose extract, put one ounce of red rose leaves in one pint of deodorized
alcohol, let stand eight days; press out the liquid from the leaves, and add it
to a half dram of otto of roses.
Oils must be fresh and pure, or the extract will have a turpentine taste; and
always use deodorized alcohol.
For fruit juices, select clean, ripe fruit, press out juice, and strain it
through flannel; to each pint of juice, add six ounces pure granulated sugar;
put in a porcelain kettle, bring to boiling point, and bottle while hot, in two
or four ounce bottles.
Canned-fruit juice may be used in the same way. These juices are a perfect
substitute for brandy, wine, etc., in all puddings, and sauces, etc.
For gold coloring, take one ounce tumeric to two ounces alcohol.
To filter water and alcoholic solutions (not syrups), pass through filtering
paper, folded in conical form, so as to set into a funnel (a half-pint glass
funnel is best). The paper is kept at all drug stores.
THE NEW "PATENT PROCESS FLOUR."--In all markets the best and highest-priced
flour is now known as the Minnesota "Patent Process." A few years ago the
process was invented and first used in the young city of Minneapolis, which now
exports nearly a million and a quarter barrels of flour yearly, and finds a
market for it in every quarter of the United States and Europe. The wheat from
which this flour is made, is the hard spring wheat, raised in the extreme North,
that raised south of Minnesota and Dakota being inferior, and most of it not
available for the best grades, while that raised on the line of the North
Pacific, and in the rich valley of the Red River of the North, makes the very
highest grades of flour. This hard wheat is first passed through rollers and
mashed; then, to the stones, which are run at a low rate of speed, and so
dressed that the grinding is nearly all done near the outer edge of the stone,
the "runner" being set high, so as not to heat the flour, but to leave it in
hard, sharp globules. From this stone it is conveyed to a series of bolts, where
the bran is separated, the softer and finer particles being passed through and
put up as lower grades of flour, known as "All-Wheat Flour." The coarser
particles and "middlings" are separated by this process, and conveyed to the
"purifiers," where they are thoroughly cleaned of all bran and impurities; after
which, they go to the stones to be reground and rebolted, and thus made into the
"Patent Process Flour." These middlings are mainly from the outer portion of the
kernel, which lies immediately below the flinty and worthless husk (which goes
off in bran), and is rich in the nutritious gluten--the nitrogenous principle of
wheat which makes it rank first as a "force-producing" food. Before the
introduction of this process, the stones were driven at a high rate of speed,
and the wheat thoroughly ground by the first run through the mill, the flour
coming out quite hot, and much of its strength lost by the heating. The
comparative rate of speed may be known by the fact that only five bushels are
ground per hour by the new process; while, with the old, from fifteen to
eighteen would have been consumed. By the old process, the "middlings" made a
second-rate dark flour; by the new, it is transformed into the best known to the
That this flour is the most economical for use, there is no doubt among those
who have tried it. The hard spring wheat makes a much stronger flour than any of
the soft varieties of spring or winter wheat, because it
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